The Institute conducts research in two major disciplines, namely linguistics and literary studies. In terms of the latter, research areas include:
- the history of Polish literature (with a special interest in periods such as Enlightenment, Romanticism, and Positivism), Young Poland, literature of the interwar period,
- migrant literature,
- literature of Borderlands,
- contemporary literature.
Additional research avenues include Polish journalism and applied literature between 1730 and 1830, myths, legends, issues related to biographies and autobiographies, anthropological problems, the role of literary contexts in Polish studies, different forms of media, and genres of applied and occasional literature.
Linguistic research at the Institute concentrates on investigating the contemporary Polish language, pragmatic linguistics, cultural and social aspects of communication (especially the language of media and politicians), onomastics, the language of children and adolescents, and rural language.