The Institute focuses on researching various aspects of cultural, social, religious, and economic history, especially in the south-eastern part of Poland. The research projects are carried out in several faculties, including the Department of Modern History and Church History, Department of Jewish History and Culture, Department of Economic and Social History, Department of Historiography and History Teaching Methodology, and Department of 19th Century History. The Institute also runs a fully functional laboratory, which concentrates on issues related to archivisation and diplomatics.

Researchers at the Department of Ancient History and Oriental Studies carry out projects related to ancient Rome and Persia (Iran). The Department of Medieval History and Old Norse Studies is particularly concerned with the medieval history of Poland and Scandinavia. Employees at the Department of Modern History investigate various political and military aspects of 20th-century history and manage the Military History Lab.

From the very beginning, the Institute has been actively involved in the training of future History teachers. Research at the Department of Cartography and Heritage Tourism concentrates on areas relevant for our students.