Among many research avenues pursued by the academic staff, the investigation into issues related to the eastern borders of the Central European cultural province (in prehistory and early Middle Ages) is considered a top priority.

The research at the Department of Prehistoric Archaeology is focused on aspects such as processes involved in cultural transformations and the origins of individual cultural circles. The Institute actively cooperates with several foreign research centres, mainly from Ukraine, Moldavia, Germany, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, and France.

The research at the Department of Early Medieval Archaeology focuses on the investigation of Polish-Ruthenian borderlands, with particular attention being paid to the location of Cherven Cities and the formation of East-Central and Eastern Europe.

The Institute is involved in several international research projects and cooperates with academics in various disciplines (Humanities, Social Sciences, Natural Sciences), allowing for a more interdisciplinary approach towards historical and archaeological dilemmas.